Chambord Castle (France)
The Château de Chambord is one of the most famous French castles and recognized in the world, located in the Loir-et-Cher, in the Centre Region - Loire Valley.
Located in Sologne, the Domaine National de Chambord is bordered by the River Cosson. The castle is located 14 km east of Blois, in the heart of the Loire Valley.
The National Estate of Chambord consists of the larger Château de la Loire, built in the sixteenth century, built in the heart of the largest enclosed forest park in Europe, about 5,500 hectares, including 1,000 hectares open to the public.
Chambord, from the Middle Ages to the twentieth century
In the tenth century, Chambord is a castle built for the Counts of Blois. In the early thirteenth century, following the marriage of Mary of Avesnes, Countess of Blois Hugh I de Chatillon, Chateau de Chambord is attached to the house of Châtillon before passing under the protection of the Dukes of Orleans in 1397. When Louis d'Orleans became Louis XII of France in 1498, the Chambord Fortress is seen attached to the crown of France.
King of France since 1515, Francis wants to create a capital city in Romorantin and Chateau Chambord. In 1516, he convinced Leonardo to leave Italy for France.
A huge construction site opened in 1519 on the site of Chambord, to create a hunting lodge on the site of the former fortified castle. A pharaonic site, stopped between 1525 and 1526 (Francis is then imprisoned in Madrid). This interruption will change the project Chateau de Chambord, who will be "simplified".
OVER THIRTY YEARS WORK
While he spent only 72 nights at Chambord, King Francis I died in 1547, before the end of the work, which was completed in part during the reigns of Henry II and Charles IX. The monarchs are leaving gradually Chambord, too isolated. Not until the early seventeenth century and the reign of Louis XIII to see a king sleep again at Chambord. The latter gives the Gaston d'Orléans (younger), who undertakes a restoration between 1639 and 1642. Later, the Sun King (Louis XIV) there will be nine trips between 1650 and 1685, accompanied by Molière and Jean-Baptiste Lully. Under the reign of Louis XV, Chambord is occupied by the stepfather of King Stanislas Leszczynski, King of Poland in exile, before being given to Marshal Maurice of Saxony, who built barracks.
At the turn of the twentieth century, the Château de Chambord, owned by the Duke of Parma, was bought by the French State, April 13, 1930 and became the beginning of the Second World War, a triage center in the North of the national museum treasures from France.
CHAMBORD WORLD HERITAGE
In 1981, the National Estate of Chambord is a UNESCO World Heritage Site (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and recognized as property of importance to the common heritage of humanity .
Chambord: Renaissance architecture Head of Work of
Today considered one of Renaissance masterpieces, the Château de Chambord was designed by Leonardo da Vinci, who spent his last years in France, in Amboise, alongside King Francis.
LEONARD DE VINCI SHADOW OF PLANE ON CHAMBORD
If the Italian genius dies before the work began, many observers believe that the shadow of Vinci flat Chambord, notably with the famous double staircase or the Greek cross structures, two elements of the architecture of the castle. Moreover, the architect Dominique Cortona, said Boccador, Vinci assistant worked on the construction of Chambord.
The castle designed by François I is both medieval style, with its walls and its imposing corner towers, and more gothic and renaissance inspiration, with its ornamentation. But on wetlands in Sologne, the construction of Chambord castle required the insertion of oak pilings to ten meters deep to establish solid foundations, even though the excavations carried out in 2007 shows that the castle s' based on limestone and the remains of the ancient castle dating from the tenth century.
Chambord remains one of the most imposing construction sites of the Renaissance, which required nearly 220,000 tons of stone (including limestone). To accompany the original keep, Francis I then built two wings to the castle (including the East Wing houses the royal residence) and a speaker, following the example of the fortresses of the Middle Ages. As mentioned above, the work has been simplified. In fact, originally, Francis plans to divert the course of the Loire to get the Royal River by Chambord. Finally, the king will resolve to change the course of Cosson, a tributary of Beuvron, to feed the castle moat.
Royal Hunt of residence in Heart of a forest full of game
The Chambord castle rests on a square body shape of a Greek cross, like many Italian monuments of the time, including St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The towers of the "Dungeon" of Chambord are oriented to follow the north-south, east-west from the four cardinal points.
The dungeon, unique building on the original plans, consists of five levels of living space, including at each level: four apartments and four circular square apartments in the towers. Between the apartments, corridors leading to the double staircase, designed by Leonardo da Vinci, located in the center of the dungeon, which gives access to the large terrace that runs around the dungeon, where hundreds can be admired chimneys and lantern tower overlooking the staircase and the largest enclosed forest park in Europe.
Chambord, LAND HUNTING FAVORITE FRANÇOIS 1ER
For if Francis I decided to settle in Chambord, it is for its park and forest full of game. But the park is not big enough for the king who acquires private land area to form an imposing hunting area of about 2,500 ha.
The peculiarity of Chambord Park is to be a closed space surrounded by a wall that should help keep the game within the park. In 1547, Francis I created a Royal Captaincy of Hunts must ensure that "the custody and conservacion of boys and bushes, red and black beasts".
Among the species that live in the National Park of Chambord include the Cerf Elaphe and Boar, both symbolic species of Chambord, but also mediterranean sheep. It is also a privileged space by birds during breeding or migration. osprey we can observe, the booted eagles, gray woodpeckers, kingfishers, lulu of larks, nightjars Europe or Dartford warblers ...
Since 1947, the Park of Chambord is classified National Hunting Reserve and Wildlife, and Conservation Special Protection Area in 2006 by the European ecological network Natura 2000.