Vyborg Castle (Russia)
Republic of Karelia See list of castles in Russia
The Vyborg Castle was one of the three main castles of Finland. E 'was built as the easternmost outpost of the medieval Kingdom of Sweden: Karelia is located on the isthmus, on a small island in the innermost corner of the Gulf of Finland. E 'was originally built in 1290. The city was originally located inside the outer walls of the castle, at the island fortress, but had to be moved to its present location off the island due to lack of space.
The construction of the fort began in 1293 by order of Torkel Knutsson, the Lord High Constable of Sweden that made in 1290 a so-called crusade to Karelia, the so-called Finnish Crusade Third, actually directed against the Russians, i.e.Novgorod. He chose the location of the new fortress to keep the Bay of Vyborg, which was a commercial site used by the locals for a long time. From the bay, a river so goes inward, ultimately linking the site to various districts, lakes, and indirectly also to the rivers that go to Ladoga.
The three Finns "fiefdoms of the castle" Middle Ages were ruled by the castles of Turku, Hämeenlinna and Viipuri, respectively, until the 1360. The castle became the stronghold of the Kingdom of Sweden in the regions of Karelia. Over the centuries, it was the first defense of the kingdom against the Russians. Its military and strategic status in the late Middle Ages was second only to the fortified capital Stockholm.
The castle and the large surrounding feud became a virtually independent principality. Its rulers were usually fiefed with incomes in the county. The Viborg feud became known as the Marquis. Its rulers were generally from the most powerful families of the kingdom. They enjoyed great administrative powers and a good distance from the capital. Those realities made them virtually independent rulers. Usually, the castle Olavinlinna (built in 1470), it was subjugated to Viipuri.
Prominent figures who have held Viipuri as their fief, were Bo Jonsson Grip, Christer Nilsson Vasa (1417-1442), Karl Knutsson Bonde (1442-1448, the future king), Eric Axelsson Tott (1457-1481), Knut Posse ( 1495- 97), Sten Sture the Elder (1497-1499, among regencies), Eric Bielke and count John of Hoya. In particular in 1440 and at the end of the 15th century, the fortresses were further expanded.
The first mention of firearms in Finland refers to the Viborg castle in 1429. During the Middle Ages the castle was repeatedly besieged by the Russians, most famously in 1495, during the Russo-Swedish War (1495-1497). Governor Knut Posse was in office from 1495 to 1497. The defenders of the situation seemed hopeless, but were saved by the explosion Viborg November 30, 1495, a mysterious explosion that scared the Russians because they saw reportedly saltire in the sky.
In the 16th century, much has been renovated and additions. In the 17th century, the castle was allowed to decay, as the Russian danger has been reduced and the border was much more to the east. Vyborg was taken by the Russians in 1710, but passed to Finnish hands in 1812, when all Old Finland was assigned to the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. The castle owes its current appearance of large restorations in 1890. The military of the Russian Empire used the castle until 1918 for administration homes. Viipuri belonged to the independent Republic of Finland between 1917-1940 and again from 1941 to 1944. As a result of border changes in World War II it was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1944.
The main castle, which is located in the eastern part of the island on its highest hill, has an irregular arrangement four corners, with the immense tower of St. Olav (Pyhän Olavin lathes in Finnish) as its largest section. And '3-4 stories high, varying in some places. outer defensive works surrounding the main castle, along the coast of the island. Now it functions as a museum.