Kalmar Castle (Sweden)
Småland See list of castles in Svezia
Kalmar Castle is located on a small peninsula just south of the city of Kalmar, Smaland. It is not known exactly when the first castle was built, but it is believed that it was around the end of the 1100s as a defense tower was built and developed during the Middle Ages the castle to the country's stronghold. In the late 1200s, during the time Magnus III (ca. 1240-1290), built bail out by five large towers
King Magnus Eriksson (1316-1374) and his Queen Blanche of Namur († 1363) was staying often at Kalmar Castle, and in 1337 he made a significant renovation of the castle where the ground floors of the wings were built and a further curtain wall with småtorn and a military port was built.
1359 was Bo Jonsson Grip († 1386), king of the castle, and as a marshal, he became the country's warlord closest to the king.
On June 17, 1397 was Erik of Pomerania († 1459) crowned king of Sweden, Norway and Denmark and the Kalmar Union was formed. Kalmar Union was debated but meant that the regent would govern the three countries and have the same foreign policy. Was anyone sentenced to outlaw in a country, he was also an outlaw in the other countries. Incidentally, each country would be governed by its own law.
During the 1400s Kalmar Castle was the place where several union meetings were held. Sweden was not satisfied with the Union in the latter half of the 1400s there were several union battles between Sweden and Denmark and the castle was alternately be in Danish and Swedish hands.
On May 27, 1523 reconquered Gustav Vasa Kalmar, including the castle, and in 1545 he began building the fortress with ramparts and turrets. The king's builder, James Richter, began building a new king bunk and when Gustav Vasa died in 1560, King stairs - which is the main castle staircase - clear as the decor in the Queen's bedroom. The steps of King stairs are old tombstones as Gustav Vasa fetched from a nearby cemetery. Jacob Richter was the builder of the castle from 1550-century until his death in 1571. Then took Johannes Baptista Pahr project contracting job (from June 1572) and from February 1575 his brother, Dominic Pahr († 1602/1603) and then Peter Dionysius (from 1601) . These were the leaders of both the construction and fortification works.
1562 Erik XIV did order a couple limestone portals of the Belgian stonecutter Roland Mackle who worked on Öland. Erik also undertook precious interior work, such as "King Eric's chambers."
When John III was responsible for the castle, he strengthened the fortifications and continued to embellish the castle in modern style and taste. From Erik and Johan's time originates much of the painted and sculpted decorations. 1579-1581 built a well, building on the inner courtyard and the castle church was built from 1589 to 1592.
When the Kalmar Castle was occupied by the Danes in 1611-1613 during the Kalmar War was plundered and destroyed large parts of the interior, as well as towers, and the gazebo that John III built on the ramparts demolished.
1642 burned one of the palace halls that were above the palace kitchen. Hall never restored and now goes under the name "incinerated hall".
After the Kalmar War the castle lost its importance as a defense facility, and in the 1640s it was suggested that it would destroy the palace and build a new one at another location. The plans were abandoned, fortunately, and instead began in 1644 to erect a bulwark in front sjöporten and ten years later (1654) asked the city planner John Wärnschiöldh († 1674) for additional reinforcements. 1673 gave Charles XI ordered the castle fortification to the country side would be strengthened. Until 1676 the castle was at times both the royal palace and the governor's residence, but after that point it ceased. The time for "the kingdom key" was over.
1724 fortress Commission wanted to maintain the royal palace and the 1730- and 1740 quarters was built in the so-called castle ravelin (fortification), while the castle itself were canceled. 1766 years of the privy committee wanted to restore the castle to its former glory, but nothing came of it. 1777 stated: "piece of the apertures in the electoral heads dilapidated tower superstructure upprutten and nedblåst, shot bunk DEVICES joists destroyed and the walls partially fell, cannon beds on ironing ramparts crumbling and parapets crashed. After this time the castle ceased to longer fortress".
Gustav III decided instead that the castle would be a distillery, which it was in 1780. It took the castle kitchen and distillery room above the kitchen became the granary of the distillery and the arches of Kuretornets walls were broken up to make way for distiller water. The time of the distillery did not last long, already seven years later (1787) put it down.
Another part of the castle was used as a prison.
1810 put forward a proposal that would demolish the castle and use the stones to the building elsewhere. Fortunately, nothing came of this. In the 1850s, however, came a new time for the castle when Oskar I did recover well in the courtyard and even "Erik XIV's chambers" which was restored in 1855-1862 and designed by royal architect FW Scholander (1816-1881). The prisoners sat on the palace in 1852 was transferred to the new prison cell.
1884 Parliament granted 80,000 crowns to repair the castle on the outside, then including the towers had new covers.
Kalmar Castle is owned by the state and is open to the public.