Svirzh Castle (Ukraine)
Lviv Oblast See list of castles in Ucraina
Founded in the 15th century by Andrew and Martin Svirzky, it was first mentioned in 1484. Primarily the castle was a purely defensive brick structure, square in terms of. Rebuilding repeatedly, the year of completion of one of the stages of work is indicated directly on the walls - the carved number "1530" is kept above the central gate on the inside.
It has become modern in the middle of the 17th century, since its transfer to the ownership of Alexander Tsetner (on whose behalf the entire district - Tseternivka and the botanical garden in Lviv - have been named). Earl bought it from Svirzhsky in 1641 and subsequently heavily rebuilt and strengthened.
There is an assumption that Zetner's idea of strengthening the Svirzh castle was carried out by a well-known fortifier, general from artillery Pavel Grodzytsky. Work on the restoration of the castle was held at about the same time when General Groditsky built two arsenals in Lviv at once - the Royal and Senjivsky.
Despite its advantageous defensive location (on Mount Belz, surrounded by impenetrable swamps, ponds, and at the foot of the walls - moats and a connecting bridge), the palace type of its architecture was unlikely to have a serious defensive significance. It is known that during the Ukrainian-Polish War in 1648-1654 the castle was once more captured by Cossack detachments, and in 1648 - the Tatars burnt down.
In 1672, during a tour of the Turks in Lviv, he endured the Turkish siege. During the second tour of the Turks in 1675 Svirzhsky Castle once again stood and defended on its ants a pledge of the Pomoryan castle, which, not having sufficient strength for defense, through a secret move went to the forest and fled to Svirzh. After the military injuries, the restoration and strengthening of the walls was carried out, but in general the castle gradually changed the appointment from the defensive to the dwelling, becoming a parade residence.
If until now the castle has steadfastly belonged to only two gentry births, then now it once again passes from hand to hand. Frequent change of owners had a negative effect on the construction, the property was not taken care of - in the descriptions of 1882 and 1892 the poor condition of the building is mentioned, in particular the destruction of buildings from the north and east.
In 1907, the castle became the property of Robert Lamezan de Salins, at that time, an officer of the Austrian Army. He restored the estate, investing heavily, and turned it into a luxurious residence with rich interiors. But in 1914 during the First World War, the castle was completely burned by Russian troops. However, this did not force the owner to abandon the castle - later the decor of windows and doors, cornices was restored; buildings and towers are covered with a roof. The main restoration was completed in 1917, as evidenced by a carved memorable inscription over the gate from the outside.
In 1939, it was nationalized by the Soviet authorities. For a long time it was empty, a short period was used as a school of tractor drivers. And so far in 1978 it was transferred to the balance of the Union of Architects of the then USSR.
On the territory of the castle park preserved a church, founded back in the XV century. Modern brick-built church building in the Renaissance style, which is placed in place of a fallen wooden; It dates back to 1546. Above the entrance to the church and now you can see the remnants of the noble emblem of the former rulers. To the church from the castle was an underground passage. The covered part of the underground passage can be seen from the ditch, which surrounds the castle near the crossing bridge.
Lviv ethnologist J.Gronsky tells us that in 1956 in the Svirzhsky church near the castle (in Svirzh there is also a second church), I saw inside the frescoes that were opened as a result of the peeling of tinka. On the frescoes was depicted a nude female figure with long loose hair in a prayer pose on the knees against the background of panoramas of the medieval Svirzh. Judging by the description, it could be Mary Egypt. The further fate of these frescoes is unknown.
Currently, the state of the castle is not the best. Invariably, only external walls have been preserved. Inside, after repeated "modifications" are going to lay the house of rest architects. In this regard, the layout of the castle rooms has been changed, and other premises have been rebuilt. In the courtyard you can see a large well, from which water was taken in the event of a siege. The well is also thrown away.